Linux Step By Step

Step By Step install Postfix + OpenLDAP + Dovecot + Jamm + SASL + SquirrelMail


This section describes how to implement a virtual mail solution. Not every little detail is covered, just what is needed above and beyond the “standard” installations.


Here is the list of software that I used. It is likely that other, older and newer, versions will work, but I didn’t test them. However, It’s essential that both Postfix and Cyrus-SASL be at versions greater than 2.

The Software List
White Box (Red Hat) Enterprise Linux 3
Postfix 2.0.16
OpenLDAP 2.0.27
Jamm 0.9.6
Cyrus-SASL 2.1.15
Preparing Your System

To prepare a Unix (like) system there are a few tasks you’ll need to accomplish:

Pre-installation Preparation
Create the vmail user and decide where you’re going to store the virtual users email.
Optionally, remove sendmail from the system.
Determine your mail server’s domain name.
Determine your LDAP base.
Create certificates for Postfix, Dovecot, and Apache (SquirrelMail).
Create the vmail User

Hint: It is not strictly necessary to create an actual user. It is only necessary to create a mailbox directory and change the owner and group to some ID that’s is not going to be used by any real user, like 5000:5000.

Creating the vmail user is just like creating any other system account. You’ll want to have a UID and a GID that is used for vmail alone. You may also want to set its home directory to the location you’ve selected for the storage area of the virtual users’ email. In my system I used vmail as the user and group name. I also decided to store our virtual users email in /home/vmail/domains.

The following example works on a RedHat Linux distribution and results in a vmail user being created and an empty mail storage directory being created. I’m told that CentOS 4 (and therefore RHEL 4 and WBEL 4) requires the -g (group) flag.

# groupadd -r vmail
# useradd -m -r -d /home/vmail vmail
# mkdir ~vmail/domains
# chown vmail.vmail ~vmail/domains

Hint: If you elected not to create a real user, then skip the groupadd and useradd commands, and change the rest to something like mkdir /home/vmail/domains; chown 5000.5000 /home/vmail/domains.

Remove Sendmail

On the advice of somebody out there I completely removed (the pre-installed) Sendmail, just in case it got in the way of Postfix.

# rpm -e sendmail

Determine your mail server’s domain name

If you have a static IP address, then you most likely already have a registered domain name. If, like me, you have a single host on the net, you may have given it the same name. However, if you want to use that name as a virtual host, you’ll have some difficulties. For instance, if you already own the domain “,” and your host is named “,” and you want to have virtual users at “,” then you’re out of luck as Postfix will treat all users at “” as local. You can probably correct this by setting the appropriate Postfix variables ($myhostname, $mydomain), but you may consider renaming your host instead.

Furthermore, the domain name you use in your certificate should match the SMTP/IMAP server name used in your mail clients, otherwise the mail clients will complain. Finally, you’ll probably want to use your domain name as the base name in your LDAP tree.

To neatly resolve all these issues, I elected to buy a new domain name, “” (continuing the example), and rename my server accordingly. Here’s how I renamed my machine:

Modified /etc/hosts
Modified /etc/sysconfig/network
Modified /etc/hostname
I rebooted after this, but if nothing’s yet running that cares about the hostname, you can probably just run hostname –file /etc/hostname.

Hint: You will need an MX record set up in the public DNS that points to your server. The MX record should not be the IP address of your machine. Instead it should be the name of an A record. That is, set up an A record, e.g. to point to your IP, then set the MX record to be

Determine your LDAP base (root, suffix, whatever)

Do whatever you want here, but the current convention, and the one I used, is to break your domain name into components and reference them with the “dc” (domain component) attribute. That is, your base should be something like: dc=whitehouse,dc=net or dc=mail,dc=whitehouse,dc=net.

Your server’s name should not also be the name of any virtual host
The domain name used in your cert should be the same as your server’s DNS name
You should probably use your domain name as the root of your LDAP tree.
Creating certificates for Postfix, Dovecot and Apache

If you want you can skip this step for now and return to it once you’ve got the unencrypted versions of Postfix and Dovecot running.

What we want to do here is create a cert and a private key that can be used for Postfix, Dovecot, and Apache (SquirrelMail over SSL). Technically, it’s not necessary to sign this cert, but we will. This allows our users to install the signing (root) certificate in their user agents/operating systems. There are a number of HOWTO’s on this subject, but you probably want to put a little thought into this first. What I wanted was to create a signing certificate (root CA certificate), a signed cert and a private key that were appropriately named. On Red Hat like systems certs are kept in /usr/share/ssl. I didn’t want to use the existing directory structure below that, instead I create a directory called hosting.example (remember that’s a pseudonym for what I really used), and created all my certs in there.

There are a handful of shell scripts in /usr/share/ssl/misc that wrap the OpenSSL utilities for manipulating certs, and we’ll use these. (You can call OpenSSL directly for more fine grained control, if you want. It will avoid some post-creation manipulation of the certs.) But first we have to modify the script we want to use, CA.

By default the CA script will encrypt the certs it creates. Generally this is a good thing, but on a server it’s not. This is because a process that uses the cert needs to supply a keyphrase to unlock it. If the server reboots on its own, then no one will be there to type in the key, and the server will never fully boot up. So make a copy of CA (call it CA_nodes) and edit it. Search for “# create a certificate” and add -nodes to the line below, the one that begins with $REQ. When your done with this search for “# create a certificate request” (just below) and do the same again.

Another change we want to make is to make sure the signing cert lasts for longer than the default year. Do this by searching for the line that reads ‘DAYS=”-days 365″‘ (the first non-comment line in my instance) and change 365 to some larger value – I used 3650, ten years.

When you’re done it should look like this:
DAYS=”-days 3650″

    # create a certificate
    $REQ -new -nodes -x509 -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS
    echo “Certificate (and private key) is in newreq.pem”
    # create a certificate request
    $REQ -new -nodes -keyout newreq.pem -out newreq.pem $DAYS
    echo “Request (and private key) is in newreq.pem”
            Now, these scripts will ask for a lot of input. To make life easier, and to avoid errors in typing, this input can be defaulted to the contents of a particular file; /usr/share/ssl/openssl.cnf. It should already be there, lets edit it.

You’ll need to change countryName_default, 0.organizationName_default, organizationalUnitName_default, commonName_default, and emailAddress_default. In addition, I also changed the default_days of the CA_default setting from 365 to 3650 (1 year to 10 years). For clarity’s sake, here’s the relevant bits of my openssl.conf file:

[ CA_default ]

dir             = ./demoCA         # Where everything is kept

default_days    = 3650             # How long to certify for

[ req_distinguished_name ]
countryName                     = Country Name (code)
countryName_default             = US
countryName_min                 = 2
countryName_max                 = 2

stateOrProvinceName             = State or Province Name (full name)
stateOrProvinceName_default     = Massachusetts

localityName                    = Locality Name (eg, city)
localityName_default            = Anytown

0.organizationName              = Organization Name (eg, company)
0.organizationName_default      = My Hosting Company Name

# we can do this but it is not needed normally 🙂
#1.organizationName             = Second Organization Name (eg, company)
#1.organizationName_default     = World Wide Web Pty Ltd

organizationalUnitName          = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
organizationalUnitName_default  = ISP

commonName                      = Common Name (eg, your name or your server\’s hostname)
# (Very Important, in order to keep mail clients and other user agents from complaining, this name must
# match exactly the name that the user will be entering into their client settings.  Whether that be
# domain.extension or mail.domain.extension or what.  It must be a valid DNS name pointing at your
# server.
commonName_default              = myhosting.example
commonName_max                  = 64

emailAddress                    = Email Address
emailAddress_default            = postmaster@myhosting.example
emailAddress_max                = 64

            With this done we can create a signing (root CA) certificate. Go to the directory you created earlier; /usr/share/ssl/hosting.example , and run the CA_nodes script:

# ../misc/CA_nodes -newca
CA certificate filename (or enter to create)[hit enter]
Making CA certificate …
Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
writing new private key to ‘./demoCA/private/./cakey.pem’
Enter PEM pass phrase:[enter a password and remember it]
Verifying – Enter PEM pass phrase:
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter ‘.’, the field will be left blank.
Country Name (2 letter code) [US]:[hit enter]
State or Province Name (full name) [Massachusetts]:[hit enter]
Locality Name (eg, city) [Anytown]:[hit enter]
Organization Name (eg, company) [My Hosting Company Name]:[hit enter]
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) [ISP]:[hit enter]
Common Name (eg, your name or your server’s hostname) [myhosting.example]:[hit enter]
Email Address [postmaster@myhostng.example]:[hit enter]
            You now have a directory called demoCA in which is your signing cert, cacert.pem, and a number of other files and directories that makeup the (currently empty) database of certificates you’ve signed and revoked. Now we’ll create a new certificate “request” (we’ll have a proper cert once we sign it).

# ../misc/CA_nodes -newreq
Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
writing new private key to ‘newreq.pem’
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter ‘.’, the field will be left blank.
Country Name (2 letter code) [US]:[hit enter]
State or Province Name (full name) [Massachusetts]:[hit enter]
Locality Name (eg, city) [Anytown]:[hit enter]
Organization Name (eg, company) [My Hosting Company Name]:[hit enter]
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) [ISP]:[hit enter]
Common Name (eg, your name or your server’s hostname) [myhosting.example]:[hit enter]
Email Address [postmaster@myhosting.example]:[hit enter]

Please enter the following ‘extra’ attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:[anything will do, I used “certpass”]
An optional company name []:[hit enter]
Request (and private key) is in newreq.pem
            The output of this is your certificate request, newreq.pem inside of which is your certifcate and private key (take a look, if you want). Now we’ll sign this to generate a real certifcate.

# ../misc/CA_nodes -sign
Using configuration from /usr/share/ssl/openssl.cnf
Enter pass phrase for ./demoCA/private/cakey.pem: [enter the passphrase used when creating the signing (CA) cert above]
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
Certificate Details:
        Serial Number: 1 (0x1)
            Not Before: Sep 4 19:04:43 2004  GMT
            Not After : Sep 4 19:04:43 2014  GMT
            countryName               = US
            stateOrProvinceName       = Massachusetts

            [output elided]

Certificate is to be certified until Sep 2 19:04:43 2014 GMT (3650 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:[hit “y”]

 1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]:[hit “y”]
Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number: 1 (0x1)

        [output elided]


       [output elided]

Signed certificate is in newcert.pem
            Your certificate is now in newcert.pem. There’s just one thing left to do to make all this nice and clean, we want to extract the private key from the certificate request and into its own file. So edit newreq.pem, delete the certificate (all the lines between “Begin Certificate Request” and “End Certificate Request” inclusive, and save with a meaningful name, e.g. ExamplePrivateKey.pem (where “Example” is your domain name, like whitehouse). I also renamed newcert.pem to ExampleCert.pem.

In summary we now have three files we care about (we don’t care about newreq.pem anymore):

demoCA/cacert.pem: Our root CA certificate
ExampleCert.pem: Our certificate for use
ExamplePrivateKey.pem: Our private key
Because various processes, running as various users will need to access these certs, make sure they are readable by world (should be already). This is probably bad practice in the event that a local user (or a black hat who has local user privleges) steals them, but I only have one user on my machine, root. And if root gets owned, well that’s it.



Not all of OpenLDAP was preinstalled on my system. White Box supports apt which I used to get OpenLDAP. You’ll need all three packages. I highly recommend installing from your distro’s package management system rather than compiling yourself.

# apt-get install openldap
# apt-get install openldap-servers
# apt-get install openldap-devel

Understanding the Jamm Schema

Configuring OpenLDAP for our needs requires Jamm’s schema files so you should download the Jamm binary now. Put it anywhere and explode it.

# tar -zxvf jamm-0.9.6-bin.tar.gz
The Jamm schema introduces four new object classes and a handful of attributes. These are:

Object Class
JammMailAccount A user’s mail account
Interesting Attributes
mail User’s full email address and, consequentially, their login name. Ex:
homeDirectory User’s home directory. Here it will always be /home/vmail/domains
mailbox User’s mail directory. Ex: The concatenation of homeDirectory and mailbox give the absolute path to a user’s mail directory
cn User’s common name. Ex: Joe Blow
accountActive Boolean telling whether account is active
delete Boolean telling whether account has been deleted. Note Jamm never actually deletes anything, it just sets this flag
userPassword User’s password, preferably encrypted

Object Class
JammVirtualDomain A domain that’s hosted on this system
Interesting Attributes
jvd A hosted domain name. Ex:
accountActive Boolean telling whether this domain is active
delete Boolean telling whether this domain has been deleted. Note Jamm never actually deletes anything, it just sets this flag

Object Class
JammMailAlias Aliases (other email addresses) that users may set up to redirect their mail
Interesting Attributes
mail The receiving email address. Ex:
maildrop Email address to redirect to. Ex: Ex:
delete Boolean telling whether this domain has been deleted. Note Jamm never actually deletes anything, it just sets this flag
accountActive Boolean telling whether this alias is active

Object Class
JammPostmaster Signifies that this account is a “Postmaster,” kind of a domain level super user. Multiple people can be Postmasters in a domain.
Interesting Attributes
roleOccupant The distinguished name (dn) of the user who acts as postmaster for a domain. Can be more than one

Once you have built the base LDAP tree and added a few domains and users the structure will look like what’s shown in figure 2.
Figure 2. Jamm LDAP tree

Configuring slapd

All slapd configuration is in slapd.conf. On my box that’s in /etc/openldap. On yours it might be in /usr/local/etc/openldap.

Adding Schemas

You need to make Jamm’s schema file available, so copy the jamm.schema file in the Jamm distribution to the OpenLDAP schema directory, /etc/openldap/schema/ in my case. jamm.schema depends on cosine.schema and nis.schema. Add these lines to slapd.conf. The first two may already be there.

include /etc/openldap/schema/cosine.schema
include /etc/openldap/schema/nis.schema
include /etc/openldap/schema/jamm.schema

Remember, these schemas might be in /usr/local/etc/opennldap/schema (or anywhere else) on your machine.

Setting the Password Hash Type

Passwords are (should be) encrypted when stored in LDAP. The default encryption mechansim is SSHA, but Dovecot doesn’t support that. So set OpenLDAP’s password hashing mechanism to CRYPT. I added the following line near the top of slapd.conf, right after all the includes.

password-hash {CRYPT}

Adding a Database Definition

Next, you need to set up a database definition. You can do this with the following lines:

database ldbm
directory /var/lib/ldap
suffix “dc=myhosting,dc=example”

The database directive specifies the back-end type to use. You should use LDBM as the back-end database. The directory directive specifies the path to the LDBM database. The suffix directive specifies the root suffix for this database.

Creating the Root User

The next few lines set up the “super user” or “root” account:

rootdn “cn=Manager,dc=myhosting,dc=example”
rootpw {SSHA}ea0sD475P32ASAlaAhR8kgi+8Aflbgr7

The rootdn entry has complete access to the database, which is why the password is stored outside the actual database. The password in rootpw should always be stored in hashed format. Do not store the password in clear text. To convert the clear text password secret to a hashed format, use the slappasswd command:

# slappasswd
New password: [enter some password and remember it]
Re-enter new password: [enter it again]

Take the output from slappasswd, and copy that into slapd.conf, as we did above.

Setting up Access Control

NOTE: The instructions that follow are for OpenLDAP 2.0.x. Most distributions now ship with 2.2. In OpenLDAP 2.2 the syntax for setting up ACLs changed slightly. Please read the comments associated with 2.0, but use the 2.2 syntax that’s given immediately after.

The last part in slapd.conf is the access control. You can define your own policy, be here’s the one Jamm follows that I’ve modified for Dovecot:

The user can change any of their own attributes.
Anyone in the postmaster group of the domain may change any user’s attributes in their domain, including the password. This allows the postmaster to reset a users password if they forget it.
The “dovecot” user can read passwords.
Anonymous (non-authenticated) users may read all information, except the password attribute.
Access control statements are evaluated in order, so they should be defined from most specific to most general. Access to the password attribute, userPassword, is the most specific in our case, and hence it’s specified first:

access to dn=”.*,jvd=([^,]+),o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example”
    by self write
    by group/jammPostmaster/roleOccupant=”cn=postmaster,jvd=$1,o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example”  write
    by dn=”cn=dovecot,dc=myhosting,dc=example” read
    by anonymous auth    
    by * nonePlease note, the line in red referencing dovecot is not in the original Jamm HOWTO, but is needed by Dovecot so it can read the userPassword. Typically an authenticating application tries to bind to LDAP as the user in question, a successful login thus validating the password. Dovecot does not yet support “authentication binds,” so we must allow the Dovecot user read access to the user’s password.

The access to line specifies what entries and attributes to which the following rules apply. The dn regular expression matches any entry in a domain of our hosting tree, and attr limits these rules to the userPassword attribute. Write access is granted to the user itself and anyone in the postmaster group. The dovecot user can read it. Anonymous users may only access this field when trying to authenticate. For all other cases, access is denied.

Next, all other attributes to entries in a domain’s tree are specified:

access to dn=”.*,jvd=([^,]+),o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example”
    by self write
    by group/jammPostmaster/roleOccupant=”cn=postmaster,jvd=$1,o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example” write
    by * readThis access to line is very similar the previous one, except that there is no attr specification and no reference to dovecot. Hence, this matches all other attributes other than userPassword. Again, write access is granted to the user and anyone in the postmaster group. Everyone is granted read access.

Finally, we provide read access to all other elements in the database:

access to *
   by * readUse these ACL statements if using OpenLDAP 2.2. Caution: Untested.

access to dn.regex=”.*,jvd=([^,]+),o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example”
        by self write
        by group/jammPostmaster/roleOccupant.expand=\
            “cn=postmaster,jvd=$1,o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example” write
        by dn=”cn=dovecot,dc=myhosting,dc=example” read
        by anonymous auth
        by * none

access to dn.regex=”.*,jvd=([^,]+),o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example”
        by self write
        by group/jammPostmaster/roleOccupant.expand=\
            “cn=postmaster,jvd=$1,o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example” write
        by * read

access to *
        by * readCreating the Directory Tree

Now that slapd is configured, it’s time to start adding data to the LDAP directory. We will use the command line tools that come with OpenLDAP and create LDIF files to modify the directory.

The first step is to create a base tree structure with our root node, the hosting organization, and an entry for the rootdn. Create a file called base.ldif (I put mine in /etc/openldap for safekeeping) with the following contents:

Caution: OpenLDAP is very sensitive to whitespace in LDIF files. Please make sure that there’s no trailing spaces on any of these lines.

dn: dc=myhosting, dc=example
objectClass: top
objectClass: domain
domainComponent: myhosting

dn: cn=Manager, dc=myhosting, dc=example
objectClass: top
objectClass: organizationalRole
cn: Manager

dn: o=hosting, dc=myhosting, dc=example
objectClass: top
objectClass: organization
o: hosting
dn: cn=dovecot, dc=myhosting, dc=example
objectClass: top
objectClass: organizationalPerson
cn: dovecot
sn: dovecotNote, the bit in red is not part of the original Jamm HOWTO, but is needed for Dovecot. This is the user Dovecot will bind to LDAP as.

Start up OpenLDAP. On RH/WB Linux you can use: service ldap start, or /etc/init.d/ldap start. It’s probably similar on your system. Alternately you can start it directly with slapd -u ldap -h ldap://

Now use ldapadd, binding as the root user, to add this LDIF:

# ldapadd -x -D “cn=Manager,dc=myhosting,dc=example” -W -f base.ldif
Enter LDAP Password: [enter the LDAP password created earlier]

adding new entry “dc=myhosting, dc=example”
adding new entry “cn=Manager, dc=myhosting, dc=example”
adding new entry “o=hosting, dc=myhosting, dc=example”
adding new entry “cn=dovecot, dc=myhosting, dc=example”
          Note, the Dovecot user requires a password. Add one like this:

# ldappasswd -x -W -S -D “cn=Manager,dc=myhosting,dc=example” “cn=dovecot,dc=myhosting,dc=example”
New Password: [enter a password for the Dovecot user and remember it]
Re-enter new password: [enter it again]
Enter bind password: [enter the LDAP password created earlier]

Hint: If you ever need to blast this database and start again from scratch, simply stop openldap, delete all the files in the LDAP directory (/var/lib/ldap), start openldap again, and repeat the above process.


We’ll only cover the sections of Postfix that pertain to the mail hosting. To deal with other parts of Postfix setup, please visit the Postfix web page.

Compiling Postfix with LDAP

Postfix was pre-installed on my system and linked with the appropriate libraries (LDAP, SASL, etc.). The following instructions are not guaranteed to work, but may be helpful. If at all possible install Postfix from a properly configured package, it’s just easier. Detailed instructions on installing from source can be found here:

Download the Postfix source and untar it. Postfix veers slightly away from the ordinary configure; make; make install pattern of autoconf. In lieu of configure, with Postfix you make the makefiles. The default makefiles don’t include LDAP or SASL, so you’ll need to rebuild the makefiles to include them. To do this, execute the following command.

# make makefiles CCARGS=”-DUSE_SASL_AUTH -DHAS_LDAP -I/usr/include” AUXLIBS=”-lldap -llber -lsasl”
Note, this is how it would be done on my system. On yours the LDAP and SASL libraries are probably in /usr/local/lib and the header files in /usr/local/include. In which case the following will work for you.

# make makefiles CCARGS=”-DUSE_SASL_AUTH -DHAS_LDAP -I/usr/local/include” AUXLIBS=”-L/usr/local/lib -lldap -llber -lsasl”
Also note that the above commands are for SASL 1. If you want SASL 2 support, just change -lsasl to -lsasl2. Details are here:

Finally, Postfix does not include TLS support in the main code base. In order to use TLS, you need to patch the postfix source as documented here:

After you have rebuilt the makefiles and patched the source you can follow the normal Postfix compiling and installing instructions as documented in its INSTALL file. Which mostly amounts to make; make install.

At one point I tried to upgrade to Postfix 2.1.5 from source, but never succeeded. If I gave myself more time, I could have, but by the time I tried to do this my existing Postfix install was my primary mail server, and the longer I futzed with it, the more mail I was dropping. Anyway, I had all sorts of issues with OpenLDAP containing SASL 1 code and the Postfix I just built having SASL 2 code, and all sorts of library issues like that. These problems tend to show up as strange, unrelated errors in the log files. Let the compiler beware.

Understanding Postfix

Read this, it’ll probably help. Postfix is composed of a number of components that run in synchrony. First, there’s a mail transfer agent (MTA) called smtpd. The MTA accepts mail over the network using the simple mail transfer protocol, SMTP. The MTA is essentially a router, it determines whether incoming mail is ultimately destined for this server or not. If not, it relays it on (or, more commonly, refuses to accept it). If the message should be delivered to someone on this server, however, it hands it over to another process called cleanup that rewrites and sanitizes the message and drops it in the incoming queue. The MTA’s job is now done.

Once a message is put in the queue, the queue manager passes it to a mail delivery agent (MDA) for ultimate delivery to a user’s inbox or to another program for further processing. These MDAs and other programs are called “transports” in Postfix. The different transports are defined in the file /etc/postfix/ (on my system). For our purposes there are two MDAs we want to know about: local and virtual. Both of these agents put email in the user’s mailbox.

The MDA takes the verified mail that the MTA has put in the queue and delivers it. The local transport knows how to deliver mail for users that have accounts on the system. For virtual users there is a different transport named “virtual.” The virtual agent, the one we use, is used when users do not exist on the system. The primary difference between the two is that virtual can get user information from remote data stores like LDAP, while local assumes the user store is system based. In fact, virtual is simply a hacked version of local. Much more information can be found on the Postfix architecure page.

Configuring Postfix

While configuring Postfix for this task, we’ll be mostly concerned with /etc/postfix/ (possibly /usr/local/etc/postfix/ on your machine). For most of the Postfix configuration, you will configure things in a way that make the most sense for your site and you can follow the documentation contained in the Postfix source or on the Postfix web page. In this document, we’ll talk about the settings that are unique to and/or affected by this setup. If any of the configuration examples shown below aren’t explicitly attributed to a specific file, assume they would be found in

Configuring LDAP Sources

Postfix user and domain information can be stored in a variety of places, i.e. sources. When using LDAP, you can create a source name out of thin air, then use that name as a prefix for the required LDAP variables. Later that same name will be used to tell Postfix that a certain piece of information can be found in LDAP by using these variables. For instance, if you are going to have Postfix search LDAP for domain information, the variable prefix might be “domains.” Then variables will be defined as such: domains_server_host, domains_search_base, and so on.

You can easily define multiple LDAP sources. LDAP source parameters are documented in README_FILES/LDAP_README The parameter names follow the pattern of ldapsource_parameter. The LDAP source name is defined when it is first used. In, you’ll need one LDAP source definition per each lookup.

Configuring the Source for Virtual Domain Information
domains_server_host = localhost
domains_search_base = o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example
domains_query_filter = (&(objectClass=JammVirtualDomain)(jvd=%s)(accountActive=TRUE)(delete=FALSE))
domains_result_attribute = jvd
domains_bind = no
domains_scope = oneThe first LDAP source definition is for looking up the virtual domains being hosted. By having this as an LDAP lookup, we’ll be able to dynamically add new domains by adding new JammVirtualDomain entries to LDAP. jvd is “Jamm Virtual Domain,” the attribute where Jamm stores domain names like

We’ve named this LDAP source “domains”. In our configuration, as specificed by the server_host line, our LDAP server is running on localhost. Our search base is the top of the hosting subtree we defined in our LDAP server, and according to scope we only want to search the directory level right under the base. We’re querying for items where the jvd element matches the domain of the e-mail recipient as well as items that are of the jammVirtualDomain object class. We also check to make sure the accountActive attribute is set to true and that the delete attribute is set to false. As specified by bind, we do not want to bind/login to the LDAP server, we just want to do an anonymous search. Since we’re only interested in whether there’s a match, and not any particular value of the match, we just return jvd as the result_attribute.

Configuring the Source for User Aliases
aliases_server_host = localhost
aliases_search_base = o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example
aliases_query_filter = (&(objectClass=JammMailAlias)(mail=%s)(accountActive=TRUE))
aliases_result_attribute = maildrop
aliases_bind = noThis LDAP source definition is for virtual aliases. We’ve named this LDAP source “aliases.” We’re querying for items where the mail element matches the email recipient as well as items that are of the jammMailAlias object class. We also check to make sure the alias is active by checking if the accountActive attribute is set to true. The destination of the alias is the maildrop attribute. Because we have not specified a scope in our ldap definition, it will perform the default search of the entire subtree under the base.

Aliases are a good way of having generic mail addresses delivered to one or more specific people. For instance, you can create an alias (easy when using Jamm) called, and have all the mail sent to that address actually delivered to and Of course, the actual recipients may be in another domain; for instance, if Bill has left the company, you can delete his email account and create an alias of the same name, such that all mail sent to is forwarded to

But possibly the least intuitive use for this feature is as a replacement for the user oriented .forward file. It turns out that it’s the local mail delivery agent that knows how to process .forward files, virtual doesn’t. Even though virtual is just a hacked version of local, during the hackery, apparently for security reasons, the ability to process a .forward file was removed. The upshot of this is that there’s no easy way to allow for a user to specify that they want mail deliverd to their normal inbox and one or more external mailboxes. One possible approach is to use a different delivery agent that supports both LDAP and .forward functionality. Procmail won’t do because, like local, it can’t get user information from LDAP. Maildrop might work except the latest incarnation of Maildrop requires yet another daemon process to run in order to get to LDAP (and MySQL, etc.), and I simply don’t want that. There are no other suitable delivery agents that I’m aware of.

However, the proper use of aliases can solve this problem. The trick is to create an alias of the name that the user will be known as to the outside world, say, then give that aliased user two or more destinations. One destination would be the email adress of the actual user on this server (that you also create), say and the rest are the remote addresses to which mail should also be forwarded, such as The user would have to set up her IMAP clients (including Squirrelmail) to have a from: or replyTo: set to the alias name ( and not the actual account name. Any mail sent directly to the actual user ( won’t get forwarded.

Configuring the Source for User Accounts
accounts_server_host = localhost
accounts_search_base = o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example
accounts_query_filter = (&(objectClass=JammMailAccount)(mail=%s)(accountActive=TRUE)(delete=FALSE))
accounts_result_attribute = mailbox
accounts_bind = noThe accounts source is very similar to our aliases source. It’s used by Postfix to look up actual users. The big difference here is that we’re looking for entries that have an object class of jammMailAccount and we’re interested in the mailbox attribute of the resulting match. We also check to make sure the account is still active by looking at the accountActive attribute and make sure the account is not marked for deletion by checking the delete attribute.

It’s possible to use virtual aliases to define “catch-all” addresses, such as “ ->” A catch-all address receives mail for every address in this domain that is not also listed in the virtual alias list. What this means is that if we have a catch-all address, it will indeed catch all email, even email destined for actual users on the system, unless those actual users are also listed in the alias list. If you use catch-all aliases, you can guard against this behavior by creating another (seemingly redundant) LDAP source that returns the email address (contained in a user’s mail attribute) of all users, and force Postfix to use both this LDAP source and the aliases LDAP source when looking up virtual aliases. Here is that LDAP source:
accountsmap_server_host = localhost
accountsmap_search_base = o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example
accountsmap_query_filter = (&(objectClass=JammMailAccount)(mail=%s)(accountActive=TRUE)(delete=FALSE))
accountsmap_result_attribute = mail
accountsmap_bind = noThis is identical to the accounts LDAP source except we are returning the mail attribute (email address) of a user rather than her mailbox location.

The Virtual Alias Maps

Now that the aliases LDAP source(s) have been defined, we need to let Postfix know to use it. This is taken care of using the virtual_alias_maps parameter in

virtual_alias_maps = ldap:aliases
If you are using catch-all addresses, and need to correct for Postfix’s quirkly handling as just described, then the virtual alias maps should look like this instead:

virtual_alias_maps = ldap:accountsmap, ldap:aliases
When Postfix builds this mapping table it will include all actual users plus all aliases, keeping catch-all aliases from catching mail meant for legitimate users.

The Virtual Accounts

Telling Postfix about the virtual accounts is a bit trickier than the aliases. This is due to the fact that we need to define a lot of extra information about the virtual mail storage.

For this example, we assume that there is a vmail Unix account created that has a UID of 101, a GID of 101, and its home directory is /home/vmail. We will use the home directory of the vmail user as the place where we store our virtual mail repository. As before, add this to
virtual_transport = virtual
virtual_mailbox_base = /home/vmail/domains
virtual_mailbox_maps = ldap:accounts
virtual_mailbox_domains = ldap:domains
virtual_minimum_uid = 101
virtual_uid_maps = static:101
virtual_gid_maps = static:101Most of the above is pretty straight forward, except for virtual_transport, virtual_minimum_uid, virtual_uid_maps, and virtual_gid_maps.

For virtual accounts, we want to use the virtual transport and set virtual_transport to specify this.

With the domains LDAP source defined, Postfix needs to be configured to use it. This is done by setting the virtual_mailbox_domains in to ldap:domains.

The Postfix documentation states “[virtual_minimum_uid] specifies a minimum UID that will be accepted as a return from a virtual_uid_maps lookup. Returned values less than this will be rejected, and the message will be deferred.” Since we have decided that all mail for virtual accounts will be stored using the vmail Unix account, we set the virtual_minimum_uid to be the UID of vmail. Also, we set the virtual_uid_maps and virtual_gid_maps to a special static map and hard code it to the UID and GID of the vmail user. All of the parameters shown here are fully documented in README_FILES/VIRTUAL_README that comes with the Postfix source.

Other Postfix Settings

Many defaults are fine in this setup (myhostname, mydomain, etc.), but change them if you need to. In my case I also set (in

inet_interfaces = $myhostname, localhost
This tells postfix to listen for connections from the outside world and from localhost. localhost is needed by SquirrelMail if nothing else.

alias_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/aliases
alias_database = hash:/etc/postfix/aliases
Even though we are depending solely on the virtual transport, the local transport is apparently still active. This transport really wants to have an alias database of its own, and that’s what these are. It seems safe to comment these out, if, and only if, you also comment out the local transport in the file (but I’m not sure how advisable that is). I elected to leave these intact and have postfix create the local alias database from the empty local alias maps file by runing the command: newaliases or postalias /etc/postfix/aliases (same thing). You’ll probably need to do the same thing.

home_mailbox = Maildir/
Make Postfix use Maildir (one file per email) format instead of mbox (one big file)

Postfix setup is complete. You can start Postfix with the following command:service postfix start. If you don’t have another email account to test this one with (like, then this service might be useful:


The setup so far will allow a virtual user to receive mail and that’s it. No virtual user can send (relay) mail (though local ones can), nor can any other server. We don’t want servers to be able to relay, but you definitely want your users to. There are a number of inelegant ways to get this to happen, but the cleanest is to use SMTP authentication; making your users authenticate to Postfix, and allowing authenticated users to send mail.

Building SASL

To use SMTP AUTH you must also use SASL, an authentication protocol invented by Netscape. The most common FOSS implementation of SASL is Cyrus-SASL from Carnegie Mellon University. On my machine Cyrus-SASL was preinstalled, but it lacked LDAP support, so I downloaded the source and compiled that. You can get the source tarball here:

Some of the defaults were not as they should be for a Red Hat like system, so I ran configure like this:

# ./configure CPPFLAGS=-I/usr/kerberos/include LDFLAGS=-L/usr/kerberos/lib –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –mandir=/usr/share/man –with-ldap
# make
# make install

The important part is the “–with-ldap” flag (make sure you have the OpenLDAP development libraries installed as above). The CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS may or may not be important. Dovecot needed them (more later), and I figured they couldn’t hurt, so I used them here too. They basically point to the Kerberos development files which on my system were not in /usr/lib and /usr/include.

Configuring SASL

Cyrus-SASL requires a particular directory to keep it’s runtime information. This directory will (probably) not be created for you. Run saslauthd from the command line and let it yell at you, then you’ll know. You can create the asked for directory manually without problems. I used /var/run/saslauthd. Or rather, the pre-existing init script did by passing in the -m flag, but I concurred.

Cyrus-SASL also uses a config file that’s not automatically created. In my case it’s called /etc/saslauthd.conf. Create this file with the following self-explanatory contents:
ldap_servers: ldap://
ldap_search_base: o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example
ldap_filter: (&(objectClass=JammMailAccount)(mail=%u)(accountActive=TRUE)(delete=FALSE))

Important: If you are using Cyrus-SASL 2.1.17 (possibly 2.1.18, as well), then you must change the ldap_filter directive above to be as follows:
ldap_filter: (&(objectClass=JammMailAccount)(mail=%u@%r)(accountActive=TRUE)(delete=FALSE))Finally, you must tell Cyrus-SASL that it is to use LDAP by passing -a LDAP to it at startup. There are two ways to do this (and you might find that it’s already been done for you); you can add it to the init script or you can add it to a file read in by the init script. I chose the former, but it’s up to you. Here’s the relevant part of my init script (located at /etc/init.d/saslauthd:
# Source function library.
. /etc/init.d/functions

# Source our configuration file for these variables.
if [ -f /etc/sysconfig/saslauthd ] ; then
        . /etc/sysconfig/saslauthd


# Set up some common variables before we launch into what might be
# considered boilerplate by now.

start() {
        echo -n $”Starting $prog: ”
        daemon $path -m $SOCKETDIR -a $MECH $FLAGS
        [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/$prog
        return $RETVAL
          Notice how the MECH variable is set to ldap and how it is later used with the -a flag when kicking off the daemon. (Also notice how the SOCKETDIR variable is set to the path of SASL’s runtime directory.) Alternately, as you can see, you coul have added the MECH (and SOCKETDIR) variables to the /etc/sysconfig/saslauthd file which is sourced by this script.

Later, when you’ve actually added a user to LDAP, you can test your SASL configuration like this:

# testsaslauthd -u users_login_name -p users_password
For instance:

# testsaslauthd -u -p thisisasecret
0: OK “Success.”
Configuring Posftix / SASL Environment

You may or may not need the following. My setup works both ways, however I’m leaving it in for safety. The premise is that every process that users SASL can have a SASL specific configuration file. In other words Postfix (not SASL) will look in /usr/lib/sasl2 (note the “2”), for a file called smtpd.conf. On some systems (Debian? chrooted?) this file path may be /etc/postfix/sasl. Postfix will then learn a few things about SASL. What we’re interested in telling Postfix is what mechanism SASL will use to look something up and what formats it will accept user information in. In short, create the file /usr/lib/sasl2/smtpd.conf (or /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf) and make it look like this:
pwcheck_method: saslauthd
mech_list: login plain
          This will tell Postfix to contact the saslauthd daemon for authentication purposes, and keep Postfix from telling user agents that is supports, say Kerberos (which it may, but SASL/LDAP doesn’t) when SASL only accepts “plain.” (Or something like that.)

Configuring Posftix

Add the following Postfix directives to the end of /etc/postfix/
# SASL support
smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_mynetworks, permit_sasl_authenticated, check_relay_domains
smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
smtp_sasl_auth_enable = no
          The first line is obvious. The second is very important — smtpd_sasl_local_domain must be there (not missing or commented out) and it must be blank! The value of this variable is appended to the login name Postfix sends to SASL. Since our login names already have the domain component, using this would cause Postfix to send something like “” or worse “” And if it’s not there at all, bad things happen.

The smtpd_recipient_restrictions allow local users and users authenticated via SASL to send mail — and nobody else (unless you have set up allowed relays, which, presumably, you haven’t.)

The smtpd_sasl_security_options bit is obvious but important. The final variable, smtp_sasl_auth_enable refers to having this server authenticate to other servers, and we don’t care about that.


Since we are using plain text logins we need to be able to encrypt them. Besides, there’s no reason to let others sniff our mail either. Turning on SSL is pretty easy. You just have to create a few certs and then set a few variables.

How to create certs was detailed above. If you haven’t done that part, you’ll need to do it now. To enable Postfix to support TLS modify /etc/postfix/ as follows (these settings won’t be there by default, so just add them to the bottom):
# TLS Support

smtpd_use_tls = yes
smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
smtpd_tls_key_file = /usr/share/ssl/hosting.example/ExamplePrivateKey.pem
smtpd_tls_cert_file = /usr/share/ssl/hosting.example/ExampleCert.pem
smtpd_tls_CAfile = /usr/share/ssl/hosting.example/demoCA/cacert.pem

smtpd_tls_loglevel = 1
smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
        These settings should be more or less self-explanatory, although I don’t know why Postfix needs the CA cert. You can play with the log level, but I found setting it to 3 generated a lot of LDAP/SASL noise in my log files.

Dovecot IMAP

Building Dovecot

Dovecot was not pre-installed on my system. It was available via apt-get, but not with LDAP support. This meant compiling from source, here’s how:

# ./configure CPPFLAGS=-I/usr/kerberos/include LDFLAGS=-L/usr/kerberos/lib –prefix=/usr –bindir=/usr/bin –sbindir=/usr/sbin –libexecdir=/usr/libexec –datadir=/usr/share –sysconfdir=/etc –mandir=/usr/share/man –with-ldap -with-ssldir=/usr/share/ssl # make # make install
In the above run of configure, the –with-ldap flag is the most important. But you must pay special attention to the output of configure. Even if the LDAP libraries are not found, Dovecot will still build and install! This may be legitimate, but Dovecot will fail to communicate with LDAP, and it may lead you (as it did me) to believe that your Dovecot build is good, and something else is keeping the communication from happening. In a similar vein, Dovecot wants to build against Kerberos, and silently continued even though it couldn’t find the Kerberos libraries, which on my machine are in /usr/kerberos/lib (the header files are in /usr/kereberos/include) instead of /usr/lib. The –with-ssldir is used to tell Dovecot the base directory for certificates. It’s not really important in our configuration, as we’ll be setting the full path to our certs, but it might as well be accurate anyway. As for all the other directory flags, well, I would have liked to keep everything in the default /usr/local (and you probably do too), but previous installs of the non-LDAP, apt-get binary made me chose to imitate that and place things as you see above — your choice.

Creating the Dovecot Auth User

Dovecot’s IMAP implementation is made up of several processes. One of these, imap-login, accepts incoming connections and should run as the “dovecot” user, which should have been created for you during package installation or during the make install step. The Dovecot authentication process, dovecot-auth, which authenticates users against some user store, should run, for security reasons, as some other user. It defaults to root, which would be necessary for /etc/shadow or PAM based authentication. But since our users are kept in LDAP, we should run this process as a less privileged user. On my RedHat-like system, this user can be the “nobody” user. I’m informed, however, that this will not work on Debian-based systems. In this case, and even on RedHat, you should create a dovecot-auth user and group.

# groupadd -r dovecot-auth
# useradd -m -r -d /usr/libexec/dovecot dovecot-auth

Note the use of /usr/libexec/dovecot as a home directory. This is where I’ve installed the Dovecot binaries. You can use whatever you want.

Configuring Dovecot

Dovecot uses the dovecot.conf file for most of its configuration settings. Using the above configure command the dovecot.conf file will be found in the /etc directory (in your case it might be /usr/local/etc or wherever you set sysconfdir to point to). LDAP is configured elsewhere and discussed in the next section. In general, if you leave a Dovecot setting commented out it defaults to something reasonable. Below, I will show only those settings that are meaningful in the context of this HOWTO.

protocols = imap imaps
Enable only IMAP and IMAP over SSL. Do not enable POP or secure POP. Though you can if you want to.

imap_listen =
Non-secure IMAP will only accept connections from local processes. This will be needed for SquirrelMail.

imaps_listen = *
Secure IMAP will accept connections from anywhere.

ssl_disable = no
It’s not enough to simply set imaps in the protocols setting, you have to explicitly enable SSL.

ssl_cert_file = /usr/share/ssl/hosting.example/ExampleCert.pem
ssl_key_file = /usr/share/ssl/hosting.example/ExamplePrivateKey.pem

The absolute path to the certificate and private key created earlier. You do not need to specify the CA cert.

disable_plaintext_auth = no
Setting this to true would keep people from connecting unless they came in over SSL. However, that would keep SquirrelMail from working, so this has to be set to no. It’s okay though, as the imaps_listen directive above keeps non-encrypted IMAP ports from being open to the outside world..

login_user = dovecot
The user that the login process runs as. The dovecot user should have been created for you during make install or during the package installation. Should not be root.

first_valid_uid = 101
last_valid_uid = 101
When we get around to configuring Dovecot for LDAP we will set up a single virtual user, vmail, just as we did for Postfix. Since vmail will be our only user, we can set the first and last valid user IDs to vmail’s uid; 101 in this exampl, almost certainly different on your system.

first_valid_gid = 101
last_valid_gid = 101
Same as above, but for groups.

valid_chroot_dirs = /home/vmail/domains
This is a list of directories where chrooting can take place. In our case, we need only one. It should be set to the root directory of our user’s mailboxes, i.e. /home/vmail/domains.

Note: Immediately below this is a setting called mail_chroot. Do not set this! This value is implied by the fact that we are using an absolute path in the default_mail_env setting.

default_mail_env = maildir:/home/vmail/domains/%d/%n
The all important setting! Okay, if I got this right, Dovecot has this notion of a “mail environment.” It consists of a mailbox format (mbox or maildir), a colon, the relative (?) or absolute path to the user’s mailbox, and a few other things that are inadequately explained. It is possible to store the mail environment in LDAP, but since this is not a standard LDAP attribute, nor part of the Jamm schema, we will forego this. When the mail environment can’t be retrieved from LDAP, Dovecot uses the default_mail_env instead. (If both of these are unavailable, I think Dovecot makes a best guess.)

The value of this setting is constructed at runtime from the text given here and some simple substitution (explained in the conf file comments). In my case it is set to use the maildir mailbox format. It also specifies that mailboxes can be found in /home/vmail/domains/[the domain name of the user logging in]/[the user name of the user logging in]. Expanded, this might be, /home/vmail/domains/ Note, I did not use “%u” (you) for user name, I used %n (en). This is because “%u” will expand to “user@domain.extension,” and we just want the first part.

auth = default
Set up our first (and only) authentication process.

auth_mechanisms = plain
The user will send authentication information as clear text. The session, of course, is SSL encrypted.

auth_userdb = ldap /etc/dovecot-ldap.conf
Where the user database is. In our case, this is LDAP. The LDAP settings are found in the file /etc/dovecot-ldap.conf (created in the next step).

auth_passdb = ldap /etc/dovecot-ldap.conf
Where the password database is. Same as above.

auth_executable = /usr/libexec/dovecot/dovecot-auth
This is Dovecot’s authentication executable. I didn’t have to uncomment it as it’s in the default place, but you may have to if you installed in /usr/local, for instance.

auth_user = dovecot-auth
The user to run the above authentication executable as. This is the user we created earlier.

That’s it. There’s a number of other Dovecot settings you might want to use, e.g., auth_verbose, maildir_copy_with_hardlinks, and so on. The conf file explains each of these well enough for you to decide.

Configuring Dovecot for LDAP usage

Dovecot keeps its LDAP settings in a separate file. This file is referenced by the auth_userdb and auth_passdb settings in dovecot.conf. It’s name defaults to dovecot-ldap.conf and it should be in the /etc directory. You do not have to create this from scratch, a sample file can be found in the Dovecot docs (/usr/share/doc/dovecot- on my system). Copy this file to /etc and edit it as follows.

hosts = localhost
The server name/IP address where LDAP is running.

dn = cn=dovecot,dc=myhosting,dc=example
The DN of the user that Dovecot will bind to LDAP as.

dnpass = secret
The Dovecot user’s password. You do remember it, don’t you?

ldap_version = 3
What version of LDAP to use.

base = o=hosting,dc=myhosting, dc=example
The LDAP base under which our users can be found.

deref = never
I have no idea. If you think you care, maybe this will help:

scope = subtree
How far under the base should a search look. Subtree is all the way down.

user_attrs = mail,homeDirectory,,,,
Pay attention to this one. The user_attrs setting lists the names of the LDAP attributes for those parts of a user’s entry that Dovecot cares about. They are, in order:

The virtual user’s user name (user@domain).
The user’s Home directory.
The user’s mail environment. See the default_mail_env setting above.
The local user’s user name.
The local user’s user ID.
The local user’s group ID.
Now, I may not have gotten this perfectly correct, but of these we’re only interested in the first one. In the Jamm schema the virtual user’s user name is stored in the mail attribute.

I have also set the attribute for the user’s home directory (homeDirectory in the Jamm schema). This is not strictly necessary, and can be safely left out. However, Dovecot claims to have some additional logging that’s dependent on this setting (among other things). This is also where core files will be dumped if Dovecot crashes. I was never able to get this logging to work, however, even after following the FAQ on this subject.

As was discussed earlier regarding the default_mail_env setting, it is possible to put the user’s mail environment (e.g., maildir:/home/username/Maildir) in LDAP, but since the standard LDAP schemas and the Jamm schema have no such attribute, we leave that blank.

As for the remaining three attributes, none of our users are local, therefore we don’t need to set these. When Dovecot needs a uid and gid it will get them from the user_global_uid and user_global_gid settings below. It won’t need a system user name, as, apparently, that’s only needed for accessing /etc/groups.

user_filter = (&(objectClass=JammMailAccount)(mail=%u)(accountActive=TRUE)(delete=FALSE))
The LDAP filter Dovecot will use when looking up users. Should be familiar by now.

pass_attrs = mail,userPassword
The LDAP attributes that contain the user’s virtual user name and password.

pass_filter = (&(objectClass=JammMailAccount)(mail=%u)(accountActive=TRUE)(delete=FALSE))
The LDAP filter Dovecot will use when looking up a user’s password.

default_pass_scheme = CRYPT
The format that passwords are stored in LDAP. We use CRYPT here to match our setting in slapd.conf. Other values are PLAIN, PLAIN-MD5, and DIGEST-MD5.

user_global_uid = 101
user_global_gid = 101
Though we set the first and last valid uid and gid in dovecot.conf, we never did set the uid of the vmail user — we do that here. This is the uid and gid Dovecot will use in lieu of the empty LDAP settings above when reading and writing from the user’s mailbox and chrooting too, I guess.

And that’s it for Dovecot.


What follows are the [slightly edited] instructions from the original Jamm HOWTO.

Installing and Configuring Jamm

Installing and configuring a web servlet container like Tomcat or Resin is outside the scope of this document. (On my hosted system Tomcat was already installed in /usr/local/tomcat). However, once you have a working servlet container, installing and configuring Jamm is a snap. Change into the webapps deployment directory, make a new directory called jamm, cd into that directory, drop the jamm.war file (that we downloaded way back at the beginning of this HOWTO) into the jamm directory, and unjar the war file. Then cd to the WEB-INF directory. Copy to, and edit as apppropriate.
# cd /usr/local/tomcat/webapps
# mkdir jamm
# cd jamm
# cp [wherever]/jamm-0.9.6.war .
# jar -xvf jamm-0.9.1.war
# cd WEB-INF
# cp
          Now you need to edit To continue to follow our examples for dc=myhosting,dc=example, we’ve edited the following lines in
jamm.ldap.search_base = o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example
jamm.ldap.root_dn = cn=Manager,dc=myhosting,dc=example
          None of the values in should have quotes around them. This will cause problems at run time as Jamm is not expecting them. This has bitten people in the past when they copied their rootdn from slapd.conf.


To access Jamm, startup your servlet container (on my system this is Tomcat; service tomcat start) if it’s not already started. From a browser goto: http://servername.tld:8080/jamm.

To login as the site administrator, the username is “root” (as specified in the file). The password is whatever password you gave to the LDAP superuser or root user way back when we were configuring LDAP.

Jamm allows for three levels of access: the site admin, the domain admin, and the user. The site admin controls the entire site and has access to every option all the time, very much like root on a unix system. The domain admin can add, remove, and modify accounts and aliases for his domain as well as assign other people to be a domain admin. The user can only effect his settings.

Site Admin

Figure 3. Site Admin Screen

When a site admin logs in, they are presented with a list of domains. They can click on the domain to drill down to that domain admin page or manipulate the capabilities of the domain admin.

Can Edit Accounts controls the ability for a domain admin to add and remove virtual accounts. When this is switched off, the domain admin can still modify the attributes of existing accounts such as the password.

Appoint Postmasters controls the ability for a domain admin to grant the powers of domain admin to other accounts in the domain. With this turned off, only the site admin can give users domain admin access.

Domain Is Active turns on or off the “active” flag on the domain in ldap. If your mail server or imap server are configured to pay attention to this flag, one can turn on or off domains temporarily without removing them from ldap.

Domain Admin

Figure 4. Domain Admin Screen

When a domain admin logs in, they are presented with a list of accounts and aliases for their domain. They can click on a user to drill down to that user admin page, add or delete accounts or aliases, appoint other admins/postmasters, and activate and deactivate accounts. Some of this options may not be present depending on how the site admin has configured the domain’s capabilities.

Delete Account does pretty much what it says it will.

Account Is Active activatees or deactivates an account without deleting it. Much like Domain Is Active, your mail server and imap servers must be configured to pay attention to this flag inside ldap.

Postmaster gives or removes the ability for that user to act as a domain admin.

User Admin

Figure 5. User Admin Screen

When a user logs in, they are presented with a user screen appropriate to whether they have an account or an alias. Currently, all that a user with an account can do is change their password. An alias user is a bit more intereting, they can edit their destination(s).

To add destinations to an alias, the user only needs to add them in the text area in either a comma seperated list or one per line. To delete destinations, just check the box next to the destination to be deleted.

Account Creation Notes

When you create an account or an alias inside the LDAP database it will instantly become active as far as the mail system is concerned. For virtual accounts, it should be noted that the Unix directory in ~vmail is not created at this time. However, we can work around this because Postfix’s virtual delivery agent will create the necessary directories the first time it has to deliver mail. Due to this fact, we recommend sending a welcome e-mail as soon as you create the account. Important! I did not find this to be true! Postfix did not create any directories for me. Therefore, for me anyway, account creation is a two step process; create the appropriate directorty tree (/home/vmail/domains/somedomain/someuser) and then create that domain and/or user in LDAP via Jamm.

Account Deletion Notes

When you delete an account or an alias in the LDAP database, it will instantly become inactive. For virtual accounts, it should be noted that the Unix file system isn’t cleaned up, i.e. the data remains on disk until a sysadmin can remove it. This will allow you to keep the data from dead accounts around for a grace period in case the account was deleted in error. However, if another account is created with the same name with the same mail path, the data will be available to the new user. This could be considered a privacy violation for the previous user.


Installing and Configuring SquirrelMail

SquirrelMail is simplicity itself to install. You have to make sure your system matches the prerequisites stated here: — essentially Apache and PHP. After that you should install the binary package (or grab the tarball, if necessary —

# apt-get install squirrelmail

The installation process will put the appropriate Apache 2.0 configuration file in Apache’s conf.d directory. The config file simply adds a “webmail” alias that points at the Squirrelmail index page. It put Squirrelmail itself in /usr/share/squirrelmail. Now you just need to make a couple of quick changes to the Squirrelmail configuration. You can do this via a Perl script located at /usr/share/squirrelmail/config/ or by directly editing the config file /usr/share/squirrelmail/config/config.php (which is aliased to /etc/squirrelmail/config.php). I chose the latter. The edits are few and are summarized here:
$use_authenticated_smtp = true;
$imap_server_type       = ‘courier’;
$optional_delimiter     = ‘.’;
$default_folder_prefix  = ”; Yes, I know it says “courier” for IMAP server type, but Squirrelmail doesn’t have a quirks mode for Dovecot, and the Courier settings work. There are any number of other changes you may want to make, but they’re all optional.

Enabling Apache 2.0 SSL

Important: If you are supporting (name-based) virtual hosts, then read this:

It’s likely that your Apache install can already speak SSL. If you’re happy with this, then great, skip to the next section. However, the default SSL configuration won’t be using those shiny new certs we made earlier. To enable SSL to begin with or to modify which certs it uses goto /etc/httpd/conf.d (on my system, yours may be different) and edit the file ssl.conf.

First, make sure that SSL is enabled by searching for the string “Listen” (with a capital “L”). It should be uncommented and set to an IP address of all zeros or the IP address of the server and followed by a port number (443), like this:

It’s likely that the rest of the global settings are acceptable, so skip down to the VirtualHost settings and search for the string SSLCertificateFile and change the file path to /usr/share/ssl/hosting.example/ExampleCert.pem (again, hosting.example/ExampleCert.pem is a place holder – substitute in the actual name you gave the cert). A few lines below this is the private key information. So change SSLCertificateKeyFile to point to /usr/share/ssl/hosting.example/ExamplePrivateKey.pem. That’s all the changes you need to make, but you may want to fiddle with some other settings. Save the file and restart Apache: service httpd restart.

Enabling SquirrelMail SSL

Now that Apache can handle SSL, you only need to make one small change for SquirrelMail. In the same directory, /etc/httpd/conf.d, you’ll find the SquirrelMail configuration file squirrelmail.conf. It’s just one alias command. Add the following command to it:
<Location /webmail>
          You can now access Squirrelmail via the URL: https://myhosting.example/webmail.

Figure 6. My Squirrelmail interface after fiddling with fonts and themes.

Allow Users to Change Their LDAP Password from SquirrelMail (OPTIONAL)

The functionality presented here is entirely optional as it reproduces some of the functionality of JAMM. However, now that SquirrelMail is up and running, it makes sense to me to have the user stay in that interface as much as possible. Over time I will install and create more plugins to SquirrelMail so that the everyday user can perform all personal administration from their.

To allow a user to change their LDAP managed password, first download the “change_ldappass” SquirrelMail plugin: Change_ldappass is dependent on the Squirrelmail “compatibility” plugin, so download that too:

Installing it is a breeze. First, untar the compatibility plugin into the Squirrelmail plugins directory. Then untar the change_ldappass package into the SquirrelMail plugins directory, cd into the resulting change_ldappass directory, copy the config.php.sample file to config.php and edit it.

The changes that have to be made to the config file are minimal and limited to the very top of the file. Simply change the $ldap_user_field to mail, the LDAP attribute where our usernames (e.g. are stored; and change the $ldap_base_dn to your version of o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example. Do not change the $ldap_password_field from userpassword to userPassword (note the capital “P”) as I did. It will work with the default, but not elsewise. The top few lines of the config.php file should look like this:

        $ldap_server = “localhost”;
        $ldap_password_field = “userpassword”;
        $ldap_user_field = “mail”;

        //put the ldap base dn of your server here
        $ldap_base_dn = “o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example”; There’s no need to restart Apache. Users can now access the change password screen from the “options” page of SquirrelMail.

Figure 7. The new “Change Password” option in Squirrelmail’s option page.

Post Install Configuration

Now that all the software has been installed and configured, there are a few other things you probably want to do.

Make LDAP inaccesible to the Internet

Currently the OpenLDAP process will answer requests from anywhere. What you probably want to do is limit connectivity only to the processes running locally (on this server). This is done with the -h flag to slapd. I modified the init script on my system, /etc/init.d/ldap, to accept normal and SSL connections only from processes on the same host. Here’s the relevant part of the init script, in the start function.
prog=`basename ${slapd}`
echo -n $”Starting $prog: ”
if grep -q ^TLS /etc/openldap/slapd.conf ; then
    daemon ${slapd} -u ldap -h ‘”ldap:// ldaps://″‘ $OPTIONS $SLAPD_OPTIONS
    daemon ${slapd} -u ldap -h ‘”ldap://″‘ $OPTIONS $SLAPD_OPTIONS
          Start up on reboot

You probably want to set up your system to start up all processes at reboot. This is especially true if your server is hosted, and you may not even be aware that your server has been restarted. If your machine is local to you, you can probably use the appropriate GUI application. However, if your machine is remote (and RedHat based), you can use the chkconfig utility to do this. Or, if necessary, do it manually. I set all processes to start at runlevels 3 and 5. You may want to use 2, 3, 4, and 5. You can get details on how chkconfig elsewhere, but here’s how I did it:
# chkconfig –level 35 ldap on
# chkconfig –level 35 saslauthd on
# chkconfig –level 35 postfix on
# chkconfig –level 35 dovecot on
# chkconfig –level 35 tomcat on
          Make sure you’re not a relay

If you followed the instructions above, and given the default configuration of Postfix, you should not be acting as an open (spam) relay. But, better safe than sorry. Go here and test your system:

Adjust Postmaster Account

When you create a virtual domain with Jamm it creates the and accounts automatically. Both of these accounts are set as aliases to the “postmaster” user who is presumed to be be a local user. This is fine, but on my system I don’t want any local users. Besides, if I did, I’d have to add another authentication mechanism to Dovecot, and I don’t want to do that either. In any case, if you would like to change the abuse and postmaster aliases to point at a virtual user, you can do so as follows:

Create an LDIF file that looks something like this:
dn: cn=postmaster,,o=hosting,dc=myhosting,dc=example
changetype: modify
replace: maildrop

changetype: modify
replace: maildrop
          Where is the virtual domain you’ve created and maildrop is the virtual user in that domain who is to receive mail for postmaster and abuse.

You can use this file to update the LDAP directory like this:

# ldapmodify -x -D “cn=Manager,dc=myhosting,dc=example” -W -f ldif_file_name
Email Client Settings

I won’t detail how to set up, Thunderbird, Outlook, etc., but here are the client settings that should be generally applicable.

Assumptions: Your mail server is accessible via a public DNS MX record at You want to host a virtual domain of and its MX record points to the same host, Julie is a user at

User Name:
Password: [Julie’s password]

Incoming Mail Account Type: IMAP
Incoming Mail Server:
Incoming Mail Server uses SSL: Yes, on the default port of 993
Incoming Mail Server Authentication: Password

Outgoing Mail Server:
Outgoing Mail Server uses SSL: Yes
Outgoing Mail Server Authentication: Password
Also, remember that you’ll want your users to import the signing (CA) cert into their client or OS as applicable.

Credits Peter Lacey; placey at


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